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FUNCTIONALLY REDUNDANT CONTROL OF CARDIAC HYPERTROPHIC SIGNALING BY INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE RECEPTORS

J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2017 Nov;112:95-103. doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2017.09.006. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

Calcium plays an integral role to many cellular processes including contraction, energy metabolism, gene expression, and cell death. The inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) is a calcium channel expressed in cardiac tissue. There are three IP3R isoforms encoded by separate genes. In the heart, the IP3R-2 isoform is reported to being most predominant with regards to expression levels and functional significance. The functional roles of IP3R-1 and IP3R-3 in the heart are essentially unexplored despite measureable expression levels. Here we show that all three IP3Rs isoforms are expressed in both neonatal and adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes, and in human heart tissue. The three IP3R proteins are expressed throughout the cardiomyocyte sarcoplasmic reticulum. Using isoform specific siRNA, we found that expression of all three IP3R isoforms are required for hypertrophic signaling downstream of endothelin-1 stimulation. Mechanistically, IP3Rs specifically contribute to activation of the hypertrophic program by mediating the positive inotropic effects of endothelin-1 and leading to downstream activation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells. Our findings highlight previously unidentified functions for IP3R isoforms in the heart with specific implications for hypertrophic signaling in animal models and in human disease.

RAPID AND TRANSIENT PALMITOYLATION OF THE TYROSINE KINASE LCK MEDIATES FAS SIGNALING

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Sep 22;112(38):11876-80. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1509929112

Palmitoylation is the posttranslational modification of proteins with a 16-carbon fatty acid chain through a labile thioester bond. The reversibility of protein palmitoylation and its profound effect on protein function suggest that this modification could play an important role as an intracellular signaling mechanism. Evidence that palmitoylation of proteins occurs with the kinetics required for signal transduction is not clear, however. Here we show that engagement of the Fas receptor by its ligand leads to an extremely rapid and transient increase in palmitoylation levels of the tyrosine kinase Lck. Lck palmitoylation kinetics are consistent with the activation of downstream signaling proteins, such as Zap70 and PLC-γ1. Inhibiting Lck palmitoylation not only disrupts proximal Fas signaling events, but also renders cells resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Knockdown of the palmitoyl acyl transferase DHHC21 eliminates activation of Lck and downstream signaling after Fas receptor stimulation. Our findings demonstrate highly dynamic Lck palmitoylation kinetics that are essential for signaling downstream of the Fas receptor.

THE BRCA1 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR BINDS TO INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE RECEPTORS TO STIMULATE APOPTOTIC CALCIUM RELEASE

J Biol Chem. 2015 Mar 13;290(11):7304-13. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.611186

The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) is a ubiquitously expressed endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident calcium channel. Calcium release mediated by IP3Rs influences many signaling pathways, including those regulating apoptosis. IP3R activity is regulated by protein-protein interactions, including binding to proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors to regulate cell death. Here we show that the IP3R binds to the tumor suppressor BRCA1. BRCA1 binding directly sensitizes the IP3R to its ligand, IP3. BRCA1 is recruited to the ER during apoptosis in an IP3R-dependent manner, and, in addition, a pool of BRCA1 protein is constitutively associated with the ER under non-apoptotic conditions. This is likely mediated by a novel lipid binding activity of the first BRCA1 C terminus domain of BRCA1. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation by which BRCA1 can act as a proapoptotic protein.