S-ACYLATION OF ORAI1 REGULATES STORE-OPERATED CA2+ ENTRY
Store-operated Ca2+ entry is a central component of intracellular Ca2+ signaling pathways. The Ca2+ release-activated channel (CRAC) mediates store-operated Ca2+ entry in many different cell types. The CRAC channel is composed of the plasma membrane (PM)-localized Orai1 channel and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized STIM1 Ca2+ sensor. Upon ER Ca2+ store depletion, Orai1 and STIM1 form complexes at ER–PM junctions, leading to the formation of activated CRAC channels. Although the importance of CRAC channels is well described, the underlying mechanisms that regulate the recruitment of Orai1 to ER–PM junctions are not fully understood. Here, we describe the rapid and transient S-acylation of Orai1. Using biochemical approaches, we show that Orai1 is rapidly S-acylated at cysteine 143 upon ER Ca2+ store depletion. Importantly, S-acylation of cysteine 143 is required for Orai1-mediated Ca2+ entry and recruitment to STIM1 puncta. We conclude that store depletion-induced S-acylation of Orai1 is necessary for recruitment to ER–PM junctions, subsequent binding to STIM1 and channel activation.
AGGREGATED AND HYPERSTABLE DAMAGE-ASSOCIATED MOLECULAR PATTERNS ARE RELEASED DURING ER STRESS TO MODULATE IMMUNE FUNCTION
Front Cell Dev Biol, 7, 198 2019 Sep 18 eCollection 2019
Chronic ER stress occurs when protein misfolding in the Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen remains unresolved despite activation of the unfolded protein response. We have shown that traumatic injury such as a severe burn leads to chronic ER stress in vivo leading to systemic inflammation which can last for more than a year. The mechanisms linking chronic ER stress to systemic inflammatory responses are not clear. Here we show that induction of chronic ER stress leads to the release of known and novel damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). The secreted DAMPs are aggregated and markedly protease resistant. ER stress-derived DAMPs activate dendritic cells (DCs) which are then capable of polarizing naïve T cells. Our findings indicate that induction of chronic ER stress may lead to the release of hyperstable DAMPs into the circulation resulting in persistent systemic inflammation and adverse outcomes.
DHHC5 MEDIATES β-ADRENERGIC SIGNALING IN CARDIOMYOCYTES BY TARGETING Gα PROTEINS
Biophys J; 2019 Aug 22[Online ahead of print]
S-palmitoylation is a reversible posttranslational modification that plays an important role in regulating protein localization, trafficking, and stability. Recent studies have shown that some proteins undergo extremely rapid palmitoylation/depalmitoylation cycles after cellular stimulation supporting a direct signaling role for this posttranslational modification. Here, we investigated whether β-adrenergic stimulation of cardiomyocytes led to stimulus-dependent palmitoylation of downstream signaling proteins. We found that β-adrenergic stimulation led to rapidly increased Gαs and Gαi palmitoylation. The kinetics of palmitoylation was temporally consistent with the downstream production of cAMP and contractile responses. We identified the plasma membrane-localized palmitoyl acyltransferase DHHC5 as an important mediator of the stimulus-dependent palmitoylation in cardiomyocytes. Knockdown of DHHC5 showed that this enzyme is necessary for palmitoylation of Gαs, Gαi, and functional responses downstream of β-adrenergic stimulation. A palmitoylation assay with purified components revealed that Gαs and Gαi are direct substrates of DHHC5. Finally, we provided evidence that the C-terminal tail of DHHC5 can be palmitoylated in response to stimulation and such modification is important for its dynamic localization and function in the plasma membrane. Our results reveal that DHHC5 is a central regulator of signaling downstream of β-adrenergic receptors in cardiomyocytes.